Lead Acid Battery Manufacturing Process: A Case Study for the Battery Manufacturing Equipment

The electric storage system, often known as the electric vehicle (EV) battery, is the most significant factor when it comes to EVs. Despite the effects of COVID-19 on the global economy and supply, recent advancements in e-mobility have led to an increase in demand for EVs, which has directly led to the rising demand for EV batteries. Hence, to keep up with demand, the deployment of battery manufacturing equipment is rising globally.

Currently, the major debate is between sodium-ion battery vs. lithium-ion battery for the ultimate choice for electric vehicles due to their advantages. However, there are other significant battery options, such as lead acid batteries, nickel cadmium, and nickel metal hydride batteries that are available in the market.

In this article, the lead acid manufacturing process is used as a case study to understand the concept of battery manufacturing equipment. But first, let’s understand the industry definition of battery manufacturing equipment.

What is battery manufacturing equipment?

Battery manufacturing is the process of making modular electric power sources with all or part of the fuel contained inside the unit and electric power generated directly from a chemical reaction. Along with mechanical and conducting components such as a casing, separator, or contacts, the three primary components of a cell are an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte. Anode, cathode, and associated auxiliary processes must be created throughout production to make a battery.

Water is used in battery manufacturing facilities to produce electrolytes and reactive materials, deposit reactive materials on electrode support structures, charge electrodes and clean them of impurities, and wash finished cells, production equipment, and manufacturing areas.

Currently, investments in battery manufacturing equipment are being driven by consumer behavior and increased spending on electric vehicles, e-bikes, and other digital equipment. Additionally, government initiatives support both the demand and supply sides of the market for electric vehicles, as battery manufacturing is predicted to be a significant area of growth in the ensuing years.

According to the BIS Research report, the global battery manufacturing equipment market is projected to reach $88.09 billion by 2031 from $9.43 billion in 2021, growing at a CAGR of 27.12% during the forecast period 2022-2031.

Figure 1 Battery manufacturing equipment market growth graph

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What is a lead acid battery?

The electrolyte in a lead-acid battery is a solution of sulfuric acid, while the electrodes are mostly constructed of lead and lead oxide. Positive plates of lead-acid batteries that are discharged primarily contain lead dioxide, while negative plates primarily contain lead. The primary component of the positive and negative plates while charging is lead sulfate.

A single-cell lead-acid battery has a nominal voltage (V) of 2V, but it may be drained to 1.5V and charged to 2.4V. In applications, a nominal 12V lead-acid battery is frequently created by connecting six single-cell lead-acid batteries in series. Additionally, it can be incorporated into 24V, 36V, and 48V batteries.

Further, the lead acid manufacturing process has been discussed in detail.

Lead Acid Battery Manufacturing Equipment Process

1.    Lead Powder Production: Through oxidation screening, the lead powder machine, specialized equipment for electrolytic lead, produces a lead powder that satisfies the criteria. The first step is to cut qualified lead bars into lead balls or lead segments; the second is to place the lead balls or display components in the lead powder machine, where they are oxidized to produce lead oxide; finally, they are placed in the designated container or powder storage bin, and after aging for two to three days and passing the test, they can be used. Controlling the degree of oxidation, apparent density, water absorption, and particle size is required while producing lead powder.

2.    Grid casting: To fulfil the needs of the grid, continuous casting is used to create the lead-antimony alloy, lead-calcium alloy, or other lead alloys. The grid serves as both a conductive current collector and an active material carrier. Lead-antimony alloys are typically used to cast ordinary open battery grids, low antimony alloys or lead-calcium alloys are typically used to cast maintenance-free battery grids, and lead-calcium alloys are typically used to cast sealed valve-regulated lead-acid battery grids.

Selecting the appropriate lead alloy for the battery type and placing it in the lead furnace to melt it is the first step in creating the grid. The lead liquid is cast into the metal mold when it satisfies the process conditions. The lead mold is properly set and trimmed after cooling; the next stage is cutting. The grid might start the subsequent production process after a predetermined amount of time. The thickness, size, and integrity of the grid are all controlled during this procedure.

3.    Plate Manufacturing: Lead powder is mixed with diluted sulfuric acid and additives and smeared on the grid's surface before being dried and solidified, forming the unformed plate. The battery's basic component, the plate, has a direct impact on several performance measures. Making a lead paste with qualified lead powder, diluted sulfuric acid, and additives is the first step in the production of paste-coated plates. The second step involves spreading the lead paste on the grid with a smear machine or by hand. The third step involves solidifying and drying the filled plate to produce an unformed plate.

4.    Plate Formation: The positive and negative plates used in battery construction are those that were produced through a redox reaction with diluted sulfuric acid and direct current to produce the lead oxide, and then they are cleaned and dried. The methods used in the battery production process, i.e., plate formation and the battery’s inner formation, can be chosen depending on the circumstances. Polar plate creation is relatively simple to control, but it is expensive and calls for special attention to concerns with environmental degradation. The cost is quite low, the quality of the manufactured unformed plates is relatively high, and the quality control of the battery’s inner formation is complicated.

The qualified unformed plates are placed into the battery tank for sealing in accordance with the process requirements as the first step in creating a sealed valve-regulated lead acid battery. The second step involves adding a specific concentration of diluted sulfuric acid to the battery in the prescribed amount. Third, a direct current is applied after placement in accordance with the size of the specification. After forming, it must be examined for discharge, assembled, and stored to be ready for delivery.

5.    Battery Assembly Equipment: Depending on the needs, various plate types are combined with other numbers in various battery types. The installation of sealed valve-regulated lead acid battery (VRLA) batteries and automobile batteries differs significantly. Automotive batteries often utilize polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), or rubber separators, but sealed VRLA batteries demand tight assembly and absorbed glass mat (AGM) separators. The qualified polar plate must be loaded into the welding tool in accordance with the process specifications as the first stage in the assembly process. The cast and welded polar groups are then placed in a fresh battery casing as the second phase. Car batteries need to be heat-sealed and welded through the wall, whereas sealed VRLA batteries are attached using an aerylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) battery case and specialized adhesives.


Due to their role in electrifying mobility and balancing power networks, EV batteries are emerging as a crucial element in the transition toward a more stable future. For battery manufacturers, increasing the production capacity for battery cells opens value-creation possibilities.

Interested to know more about the growing technologies in your industry vertical? Get the latest market studies and insights from BIS Research. Connect with us at  hello@bisresearch.com to learn and understand more. 

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